If you’re looking for passive income sources, index investing is one way to go. Unlike active investing which involves regular buying, selling, and performance evaluation, index funds adopt a buy-and-hold system. Moreover, index funds have fewer requirements than building an individual portfolio, making them ideal for new investors with little financial knowledge.
What are index funds?
An index tracks the performance of large asset groups of the same type, for example, currencies, stocks, commodities, and bonds. As such, index funds are assets that seek returns from a wider market by monitoring a benchmark index. Assume the S&P 500 delivered 10% returns in a particular year. Though gains aren’t guaranteed, any index fund following this benchmark would bring similar returns. That means the index fund holds the same companies in the main index.
Even so, index funds use special formulas to determine which businesses to add and the weight each company carries. Investors receive interest, capital gains, and dividends regularly. There are several ways to start index investing. For starters, you can buy the assets through employer-supported retirement programs like 401 (k). Alternatively, you can use individual retirement accounts if the employer doesn’t have a retirement plan. You could also invest through your online brokerage account. Here are some categories of index funds.
- Custom index funds: Unlike standard indexes that adopt a multifunctional model, these assets allow businesses to create investment plans under a passive system. Although the index is yet to go mainstream, many institutions are using it in the background.
- Bond index funds: They track the movement of various types of bonds. Sometimes referred to as fixed-income indexes, these assets can match corporate debt, municipal, and government bonds.
- International index funds: By monitoring indexes in different countries, international index funds provide a cost-effective method to invest overseas. The downside is these assets are prone to political and currency-related risks.
- Broad market index funds: These assets replicate a large section of an investable market. For example, the Wilshire 5000 follows the movement of the entire United States stock market.
Select an index fund depending on your investment goals and position in your financial journey. For instance, fast-growing assets such as tech and startup stocks promise higher returns. However, these assets are volatile and only ideal if you can tolerate risks. Consider funds in established industries if you want stability and steady growth.
Pros of investing in index funds
Index investment presents numerous advantages. It’s no surprise Warren Buffet described cost-effective index funds as a sensible financial tool for most investors. Here’s why index investing is a good idea.
Because asset managers replicate benchmark indexes, these funds charge lower expense ratios than actively-managed options. As such, you don’t need to hire research analysts for stock selection. Moreover, index fund administrators trade holdings less frequently, reducing commissions and transaction charges.
Conversely, actively-managed funds require more experts to choose the companies within an asset, increasing management fees. The expense ratio covers operating costs such as taxes, payments to advisors, accounting, and transaction charges.
Index funds distribute your risk by allowing simultaneous investments in different companies. Take the case of the S&P 500 index which tracks the top 500 companies in America.
Investing in this fund exposes you to different companies since you’re purchasing 500 stocks in one fund. Rather than researching and buying individual stocks, index investing only requires you to pick a credible index fund. By doing so, you balance your investment among businesses of different sectors, sizes, and growth patterns.
- Easier Decision Making
Finding the right stocks can be confusing and time-consuming. Since they borrow from benchmark indexes, these assets save you the trouble of predicting an individual company’s performance.
Assuming you’re interested in oil stocks but don’t know what to buy, index investing lets you buy the whole sector instead of incurring company-specific risk. Furthermore, a basket of assets reduces emotional investment since you’re not attached to individual stocks.
- Predictable Long-Term Returns
Unlike individual stocks that don’t guarantee profits, index funds promise stable returns in the long term.
For example, the S&P 500 earned approximately 10% in average annual returns over 90 years. The steady income is a result of diversification that cushions against deep losses.
Cons of investing in index funds
Here are the downsides of index investing:
- No Big Gains
Since your index has poor-performing stocks dragging your returns, high earnings aren’t guaranteed. Additionally, you may experience delayed gains compared to other aggressive investments.
- Less Control
You might have a say in the types of businesses and industries you invest in, but you cannot pick the companies in the fund. This means you cannot remove or add any holdings. For example, price-weighted indexes distribute your money according to company stock prices.
On the other hand, capitalization-weighted indexes allocate your funds according to every business’s market capitalization. This is unlike equal-weight indexes that share your investment equally.
- Limited flexibility
Supposing index returns are on a decline, the asset manager’s attempts to control losses must follow a set of rules.
Conversely, administrators of actively-managed funds have more options to deal with poor market conditions.
- Barrier to Entry
Although some index funds don’t have minimum requirements, others demand sizable starting investments. You might have to pay between $1,000 and $10,000 to access the market’s best shares.
Consider the pros and cons of index funds before settling on this investment tool. That involves researching the market before diving in. The good news is you can start index investing with minimal capital. However, only risk what you can bear losing.
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